Professor Stavroula Karapapa

Essex Law School
Professor Stavroula Karapapa
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873761

  • Location

    5NW.8.8, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    Please email me to schedule an appointment



Stavroula Karapapa joined Essex in 2020 as a tenured Professor of Intellectual Property and Information Law. Karapapa has previously held the Chair of Intellectual Property and Information Law and Executive Directorship of the Centre of Commercial Law and Financial Regulation at the University of Reading; she has also taught at Brunel Law School, where she was the deputy Director of the Intellectual Property, Internet and Media Research Centre. Before joining the academia, she was a legal practitioner, specialising in intellectual property, commercial and civil law.  Karapapa is visiting research fellow at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (2020/21); Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy; Editor-in-Chief of the European Trade Mark Reports (Sweet & Maxwell); Correspondent for Kluwer EU Copyright Cases (Kluwer); adjunct Professor at the University of London (PGLaws); and Greek-qualified Barrister (Athens Bar). Karapapa writes and teaches about the challenges that digital technologies pose for existing legal regimes, particularly intellectual property law and digital rights. She is interested in the legal regulation of digital networked environments, digital humanities research, big data, and artificial intelligence (in particular machine learning) and has focused much of her career on how the law has sought to regulate and otherwise shape information technology—as well as the impact of information technology on the law. Her work is distinctive in its socio-legal and comparative outlook and often involves doctrinal analysis at the interface of other disciplines. ​ Her work has been cited in UK Intellectual Property Office draft legislation, Opinions of the Advocate General, and official reports of the European Commission, the Canadian Privacy Commissioner, and the US Copyright Office. She offers expert opinion to the UK Intellectual Property Office and the European Commission on issues related to copyright law reform since 2012. In her most recent book, Defences to Copyright Infringement: Creativity, Innovation and Freedom on the Internet (OUP, 2020) she develops a coherent theoretical and doctrinal framework for copyright defences and offers normative insights and policy recommendations. Her other books include: Copyright and Mass Digitization (OUP, 2013, with Maurizio Borghi) and Private Copying (Routledge, 2012). ​ Karapapa has also pioneered the problem-based approach in legal education by having published a textbook on Intellectual Property Law (OUP, 2019, with Luke McDonagh), which encourages students to engage with each topic through relevant, real-world issues and gain insight into how the law interacts with everyday life and business. Karapapa would welcome research proposals in the areas of Intellectual Property Law, Information Law, Digital Regulation, Media Law, and Data Protection.


  • PhD Brunel University London,

  • LLM Brunel University London,

  • LLB (Ptychion) National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,


University of Essex

  • Deputy Director of Research, School of Law, University of Essex (1/7/2020 - present)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Copyright Law and Policy

Open to supervise

Law and the Arts

Open to supervise

Legal Challenges of AI, Big Data and Blockchain Technology

Open to supervise

Personality Rights, Data Protection, and Information Privacy

Open to supervise

Internet Law, and Digital Regulation

Open to supervise

Trade Mark and Unfair Competition Law

Open to supervise

Conferences and presentations

EU copyright exceptions as user rights: Positive and normative dimensions

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, London, UK, 2/6/2021

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Comparative Media Law and Regulation (LT431)

  • Copyright and Trade Mark Law (LW363)


Journal articles (10)

Karapapa, S., (2017). The Requirement for a "New Public" in EU Copyright Law. European Law Review. 42 (1), 63-81

Karapapa, S. and Borghi, M., (2015). Search engine liability for autocomplete suggestions: personality, privacy and the power of the algorithm. International Journal of Law and Information Technology. 23 (3), 261-289

Borghi, M. and Karapapa, S., (2015). Contractual Restrictions on Lawful Use of Information: Sole-Source Databases Protected by the Back Door?. European Intellectual Property Review. 37 (8), 505-514

Karapapa, S., (2014). Trade Mark Use Explained: Insights from the General Court in “Bud”. European Journal of Risk Regulation. 5 (1), 111-114

Karapapa, S., (2014). Reconstructing copyright exhaustion in the online world. Intellectual Property Quarterly. 4, 304-322

Borghi, M., Ferretti, F. and Karapapa, S., (2013). Online data processing consent under EU law: a theoretical framework and empirical evidence from the UK. International Journal of Law and Information Technology. 21 (2), 109-153

Karapapa, S., (2013). A Copyright Exception for Private Copying in the United Kingdom. European Intellectual Property Review. 35 (3), 129-137

Karapapa, S., (2011). Padawan v SGAE: A Right to Private Copy?. European Intellectual Property Review. 33 (4), 252-259

Borghi, M. and Karapapa, S., (2011). Non-display uses of copyright works: Google Books and beyond. Queen Mary Journal of Intellectual Property. 1 (1), 21-52

Karapapa, S., (2010). Registering Scents as Community Trade Marks. The Trademark Reporter. 100 (6), 1335-1359

Books (4)

Karapapa, S., (2020). Defences to Copyright Infringement: Creativity, Innovation and Freedom on the Internet. Oxford University Press. 9780198795636

Karapapa, S. and McDonagh, L., (2019). Intellectual Property Law. Oxford University Press. 0198747691. 9780198747697

Borghi, M. and Karapapa, S., (2013). Copyright and Mass Digitization: A Cross-Jurisdictional Perspective. Oxford University Press. 0199664552. 9780199664559

Karapapa, S., (2012). Private Copying: The Scope of User Freedom in EU Digital Copyright. Routledge. 9781138016835

Book chapters (18)

Karapapa, S., (2022). The EU, UK, and US approaches to permitted uses under copyright law: Comparative reflections and contemporary trends. In: International Copyright Law: A Practical Global Guide. Editors: Allgrove, B., . Global Business Publishing. 13- 20

Karapapa, S., (2022). Digitization of Cultural Heritage under EU Copyright: Digitizing the Past to Enable Access and Innovation for the Future. In: Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Cultural Heritage. Editors: Stamatoudi, I., . Edward Elgar

Karapapa, S., (2022). Greek traditional music: Creativity, copyright and the commons. In: Music Borrowing, Creativity and Copyright - A Genre-by-Genre Analysis. Editors: Bonadio, E. and Zhu, C., . Hart Publishing

Karapapa, S., (2022). The Press Publishers’ Right under EU Law: Rewarding Investment through Intellectual Property. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Investment-Driven Intellectual Property. Editors: Bonadio, E. and Goold, P., . Cambridge University Press

Geiger, C., Schönherr, F., Stamatoudi, I., Torremans, P. and Karapapa, S., (2021). The Information Society Directive. In: EU Copyright Law: A Commentary (second edition). Editors: Stamatoudi, I. and Torremans, P., . Edward Elgar. 978 1 78643 779 2

Karapapa, S., (2021). The Quotation Exception under EU Copyright Law: Paving the Way for User Rights. In: Routledge Handbook of European Copyright Law. Editors: Rosati, E., . Routledge. 247- 262. 9780367436964

Stamatoudi, I., Torremans, P. and Karapapa, S., (2021). The information society directive: Christophe Geiger and Franciska Schönherr (Articles 5 and 6(4)). In: EU Copyright Law: A Commentary. 279- 380. 9781786437792

Karapapa, S., (2020). Exhaustion of Rights on Digital Content under EU Copyright: Positive and Normative Perspectives. In: Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Digital Technologies. Editors: Aplin, T., . Edward Elgar. 483- 505. 9781785368332

Borghi, M. and Karapapa, S., (2019). Dal cartaceo al “digitale di massa”: biblioteche virtuali, diritto d’autore e il caso Google Books. Editors: Zaccarello, M., . Carocci editore. 95- 114. 9788843096671

Karapapa, S., (2019). Post-it Note. In: A History of Intellectual Property in 50 Objects. Editors: Op den Kamp, C. and Hunter, D., . Cambridge University Press. 323- 335. 1108352022. 9781108352024

Karapapa, S., (2019). Copyright Protection of Street art and Graffiti in Greece: Intellectual Property and Personal Property in Conflict?. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Copyright in Street Art and Graffiti. Editors: Bonadio, E., . Cambridge University Press. 239- 254. 1108674046. 9781108674041

Karapapa, S., (2019). Post-it note. In: A History of Intellectual Property in 50 Objects. 327- 335. 9781108420013

Karapapa, S., (2018). Article 30(3) of the International Convention on the rights of disabled persons. In: The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities A Commentary. Editors: Bantekas, I., Stein, MA. and Anastasiou, D., . Oxford University Press. 863- 863. 0192538691. 9780192538697

Sterling, A. and Karapapa, S., (2018). Economic Rights. In: Sterling on World Copyright Law. Editors: Cook, T., . Sweet & Maxwell. 389- 479. 0414066227. 9780414066229

Sterling, A. and Karapapa, S., (2018). Moral Rights. In: Sterling on World Copyright Law. Editors: Cook, T., . Sweet & Maxwell. 355- 388. 0414066227. 9780414066229

Sterling, A. and Karapapa, S., (2018). National, International and Regional Protection. In: Sterling on World Copyright Law. Editors: Cook, T., . Sweet & Maxwell. 713- 719. 0414066227. 9780414066229

Sterling, A. and Karapapa, S., (2018). International Conventions, Treaties and Agreements. In: Sterling on World Copyright Law. Editors: Cook, T., . Sweet & Maxwell. 721- 730. 0414066227. 9780414066229

Karapapa, S., (2018). The Press Publishers' Right in the European Union: An Overreaching Proposal and the Future of News Online. In: Non-Conventional Copyright: Do New and Atypical Works Deserve Protection?. Editors: Bonadio, E. and Lucchi, N., . Edward Elgar. 316- 339. 9781786434067

Reports and Papers (4)

Karapapa, S., Copyright and User Freedom: What is Permitted to do with a Protected Work without Authorisation?

Antoniou, A., Karapapa, S., Sarid, E., Woods, L. and Xu, T., (2020). Consultation on Artificial Intelligence and Intellectual Property

Sarid, E. and et, A., (2020). Consultation on Digital Cultural Heritage

Karapapa, S. and et al, (2020). Consultation on Digital Cultural Heritage: Position Paper

Other (3)

Antoniou, A. and Karapapa, S., (2022).The case of the caterpillar cakes: why legal protection for a shape is so hard to come by. The Conversation,The Conversation

Karapapa, S., (2022).Book review: Art and Modern Copyright: The Contested Image by Elena Cooper. Journal of Legal History. 43(1),Routledge

Karapapa, S., Karatzia, A., Konstadinides, T. and O'Connor, N., (2020).Response to the consultation by the Ministry of Justice on the departure from retained EU case law by UK courts and tribunals,University of Essex, School of Law

+44 (0) 1206 873761


5NW.8.8, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

Please email me to schedule an appointment